Water footprint assessment manual - the global standard

2011
Hoekstra, A.Y., Chapagain, A.K., Aldaya, M.M. and Mekonnen, M.M. (2011) The water footprint assessment manual: Setting the global standard, Earthscan, London, UK.

Books

2013
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2013) The water footprint of modern consumer society, Routledge, London, UK.
2008
Hoekstra, A.Y. and Chapagain, A.K. (2008) Globalization of water: Sharing the planet's freshwater resources, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK.

Peer-reviewed journal publications

2014
Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2014) Water footprint benchmarks for crop production: A first global assessment, Ecological Indicators, 46: 214-223.
download
2.0 MB
2014
Orlowsky, B., Hoekstra, A.Y., Gudmundsson, L. and Seneviratne, S.I. (2014) Todays virtual water consumption and trade under future water scarcity, Environmental Research Letters, 9: 074007.
download
2.0 MB
2014
Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2014) Water conservation through trade: The case of Kenya, Water International, 39(4): 451-468.
download
1.0 MB
2014
Zhuo, L., Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2014) Sensitivity and uncertainty in crop water footprint accounting: A case study for the Yellow River basin, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 18(6): 2219-2234.
download
2.0 MB
2014
Schyns, J.F. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2014) The added value of Water Footprint Assessment for national water policy: A case study for Morocco, PLoS ONE, 9(6): e99705..
download
2.0 MB
2014
Vanham, D. and Bidoglio, G. (2014) The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins, Environmental Research Letters, 9: 064007.
download
3.0 MB
2014
Hoekstra, A.Y. and Wiedmann, T.O. (2014) Humanity's unsustainable environmental footprint, Science, 344(6188): 1114-1117.
download
0.5 MB
2014
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2014) Water scarcity challenges to business, Nature Climate Change, 4(5): 318-320.
download
0.7 MB
2014
Ercin, A.E. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2014) Water footprint scenarios for 2050: A global analysis,Environment International, 64: 71-82.
download
1.6 MB
2014
Fang, K., Heijungs, R. and De Snoo, G.R. (2014) Theoretical exploration for the combination of the ecological, energy, carbon, and water footprints: Overview of a footprint family, Ecological Indicators, 36: 508-518.
download
0.6 MB
2014
Cazcarro, I., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Sánchez Chóliz, J. (2014) The water footprint of tourism in Spain, Tourism Management, 40: 90-101.
download
0.6 MB
2014
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2014) Sustainable, efficient and equitable water use: The three pillars under wise freshwater allocation, WIREs Water, 1(1): 31-40.
download
0.2 MB
2013
Boulay, A.M., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Vionnet, S. (2013) Complementarities of water-focused Life Cycle Assessment and Water Footprint Assessment, Environmental Science and Technology, 47(21): 11926-11927.
download
0.7 MB
2013
Vanham, D., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Bidoglio, G. (2013) Potential water saving through changes in European diets, Environment International, 61: 45-56.
download
4.0 MB
2013
Zhang, G.P., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Mathews, R.E. (2013) Water Footprint Assessment (WFA) for better water governance and sustainable development, Water Resources and Industry, 1-2: 1-6.
download
0.2 MB
2013
Ruini, L., Marino, M., Pignatelli, S., Laio, F. and Ridolfi, L. (2013) Water footprint of a large-sized food company: The case of Barilla pasta production, Water Resources and Industry, 1-2: 7-24.
download
2.0 MB
2013
Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2013) The water footprint of poultry, pork and beef: A comparative study in different countries and production systems, Water Resources and Industry, 1-2: 25-36.
download
0.5 MB
2013
Francke, I.C.M. and Castro, J.F.W. (2013) Carbon and water footprint analysis of a soap bar produced in Brazil by Natura Cosmetics,Water Resources and Industry, 1-2: 37-48.
download
0.9 MB
2013
Vanham, D. (2013) An assessment of the virtual water balance for agricultural products in EU river basins, Water Resources and Industry, 1-2: 49-59.
download
5.0 MB
2013
Dumont, A., Salmoral, G. and Llamas, M.R. (2013) The water footprint of a river basin with a special focus on groundwater: The case of Guadalquivir basin (Spain), Water Resources and Industry, 1-2: 60-76.
download
2.0 MB
2013
Rushforth, R.R., Adams, E.A. and Ruddell, B.L. (2013) Generalizing ecological, water and carbon footprint methods and their worldview assumptions using Embedded Resource Accounting, Water Resources and Industry, 1-2: 77-90.
download
0.3 MB
2013
Vanham, D., Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2013) The water footprint of the EU for different diets, Ecological Indicators, 32: 1-8.
download
1.2 MB
2013
Vanham, D. and Bidoglio, G. (2013) A review on the indicator water footprint for the EU28, Ecological Indicators, 26: 61–75.
download
3.2 MB
2013
Ercin, A.E., Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2013) Sustainability of national consumption from a water resources perspective: The case study for France, Ecological Economics, 88: 133-147.
download
2.3 MB
2012
Chapagain, A.K. and Tickner, D., (2012) Water footprint : Help or Hindrance? Water Alternatives, 5:(3) 563 − 581.
download
0.6 MB
2012
Steen-Olsen, K., Weinzettel, J., Cranston, G., Ercin, A.E. and Hertwich, E.G. (2012) Carbon, land, and water footprint accounts for the European Union: Consumption, production, and displacements through international trade, Environmental Science and Technology, 46(20): 10883-10891.
download
1.2 MB
2012
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) Computer-supported games and role plays in teaching water management, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16(8): 2985-2994.
download
0.8 MB
2012
Zeng, Z., Liu, J., Koeneman, P.H., Zarate, E. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16(8): 2771-2781.
download
1.6 MB
2012
Mekonnen, M.M., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Becht, R. (2012) Mitigating the water footprint of export cut flowers from the Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya, Water Resources Management, 26: 3725−3742.
download
0.3 MB
2012
Jefferies, D., Muñoz, I., Hodges, J., King, V.J., Aldaya, M., Ercin, A.E., Milà i Canals, L. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) Water Footprint and Life Cycle Assessment as approaches to assess potential impacts of products on water consumption: Key learning points from pilot studies on tea and margarine, Journal of Cleaner Production, 33: 155-166
download
0.8 MB
2012
Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Van Lienden, A.R., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Van der Meer, Th.H. (2012) Biofuel scenarios in a water perspective: The global blue and green water footprint of road transport in 2030, Global Environmental Change, 22: 764-775.
download
0.9 MB
2012
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) The hidden water resource use behind meat and dairy, Animal Frontiers, 2(2): 3-8.
download
1.5 MB
2012
Gerbens-Leenes, W. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol, Environment International, 40: 202-211.
download
1.2 MB
2012
Hoekstra, A.Y., Mekonnen, M.M., Chapagain, A.K., Mathews, R.E. and Richter, B.D. (2012) Global monthly water scarcity: Blue water footprints versus blue water availability, PLoS ONE 7(2): e32688.
download
1.0 MB
2012
Hoekstra, A.Y. and Mekonnen, M.M. (2012) From water footprint assessment to policy, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(22): E1425.
download
0.4 MB
2012
Hoekstra, A.Y. and Mekonnen, M.M. (2012) The water footprint of humanity, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(9): 3232−3237.
download
4.8 MB
2012
Ercin, A.E., Aldaya, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) The water footprint of soy milk and soy burger and equivalent animal products, Ecological Indicators, 18: 392−402.
download
0.7 MB
2012
Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) A global assessment of the water footprint of farm animal products, Ecosystems, 15(3): 401−415.
download
0.5 MB
2012
Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16(1): 179-187.
download
0.9 MB
2012
Van Oel, P.R. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) Towards quantification of the water footprint of paper: A first estimate of its consumptive component,Water Resources Management, 26(3): 733-749.
download
0.4 MB
2012
Liu, C., Kroeze, C., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Gerbens-Leenes, W. (2012) Past and future trends in grey water footprints of anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to major world rivers, Ecological Indicators, 18: 42-49.
download
1.2 MB
2012
Galli, A., Wiedmann, T., Ercin, E., Knoblauch, D., Ewing, B. and Giljum, S. (2011) Integrating ecological, carbon and water footprint into a "footprint family" of indicators: Definition and role in tracking human pressure on the planet, Ecological Indicators,16: 100-112.
download
2.4 MB
2011
Gerbens-Leenes, W. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) The water footprint of biofuel-based transport, Energy & Environmental Science, 4(8): 2658-2668.
download
0.3 MB
2011
Fader, M., Gerten, D., Thammer, M., Heinke, J., Lotze-Campen, H., Lucht, W. and Cramer, W. (2011) Internal and external green-blue agricultural water footprints of nations, and related water and land savings through trade, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15(5): 1641-1660.
download
1.6 MB
2011
Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15(5): 1577-1600.
download
1.2 MB
2011
Chapagain, A.K. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) The blue, green and grey water footprint of rice from production and consumption perspectives, Ecological Economics, 70(4): 749-758.
download
1.2 MB
2011
Feng, K., Hubacek, K., Minx, J., Siu, Y.L., Chapagain, A., Yu, Y., Guan, D. and Barrett, J. (2011) Spatially explicit analysis of water footprints in the UK, Water, 3(1): 47-63
download
3.5 MB
2011
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) The global dimension of water governance: Why the river basin approach is no longer sufficient and why cooperative action at global level is needed, Water, 3(1):21-46.
download
0.2 MB
2011
Ercin, A.E., Aldaya, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) Corporate water footprint accounting and impact assessment: The case of the water footprint of a sugar-containing carbonated beverage, Water Resources Management, 25(2): 721-741.
download
0.4 MB
2010
Aldaya, M.M., Martinez-Santos, P. and Llamas, M.R. (2010) Incorporating the water footprint and virtual water into policy: Reflections from the Mancha Occidental Region, Spain, Water Resources Management 24(5): 941-958.
download
1.2 MB
2010
Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2010) A global and high-resolution assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of wheat, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 14(7), 1259−1276.
download
1.4 MB
2010
Romaguera, M., Hoekstra, A.Y., Su, Z., Krol, M.S. and Salama, M.S. (2010) Potential of using remote sensing techniques for global assessment of water footprint of crops, Remote Sensing, 2(4): 1177-1196.
download
0.4 MB
2010
Aldaya, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2010) The water needed for Italians to eat pasta and pizza, Agricultural Systems, 103: 351-360.
download
0.8 MB
2010
Aldaya, M.M., Allan, J.A. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2010) Strategic importance of green water in international crop trade, Ecological Economics, 69(4): 887-894.
download
1.3 MB
2010
Bulsink, F., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Booij, M.J. (2010) The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 14(1): 119−128.
download
1.6 MB
2009
Van Oel, P.R., Mekonnen M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2009) The external water footprint of the Netherlands: Geographically-explicit quantification and impact assessment, Ecological Economics 69(1): 82-92.
download
1.2 MB
2009
Hoekstra, A.Y., Gerbens-Leenes, W. and Van der Meer, T.H. (2009) Water footprint accounting, impact assessment, and life-cycle assessment, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(40): E114.
download
0.7 MB
2009
Gerbens-Leenes, W., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Van der Meer, T.H. (2009) The water footprint of bioenergy, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (25): 10219-10223
download
0.5 MB
2009
Verma, S., Kampman, D.A., Van der Zaag, P. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2009) Going against the flow: A critical analysis of inter-state virtual water trade in the context of India's National River Linking Programme, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 34: 261-269.
download
0.3 MB
2009
Gerbens-Leenes, P.W. Hoekstra, A.Y. and Van der Meer. Th. (2009) The water footprint of energy from biomass: A quantitative assessment and consequences of an increasing share of bio-energy in energy supply, Ecological Economics, 68(4): 1052-1060.
download
0.4 MB
2009
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2009) Human appropriation of natural capital: A comparison of ecological footprint and water footprint analysis, Ecological Economics 68(7): 1963-1974.
download
0.3 MB
2009
Chapagain, A.K., and Orr, S. (2009) An improved water footprint methodology linking global consumption to local water resources: A case of Spanish tomatoes, Journal of Environmental Management, 90: 1219-1228.
download
0.3 MB
2008
Liu, J. and Savenije, H.H.G. (2008) Food consumption patterns and their effect on water requirement in China, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 12(3): 887-898.
download
0.4 MB
2008
Chapagain, A.K. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2008) The global component of freshwater demand and supply: An assessment of virtual water flows between nations as a result of trade in agricultural and industrial products, Water International 33(1): 19-32.
download
2.0 MB
2007
Galloway, J.N., et al. (2007) International trade in meat: The tip of the pork chop, Ambio 36(8): 622-629.
download
0.5 MB
2007
Hoekstra, A.Y. and Chapagain, A.K. (2007) The water footprints of Morocco and the Netherlands: Global water use as a result of domestic consumption of agricultural commodities, Ecological Economics 64(1): 143-151.
download
1.1 MB
2007
Chapagain, A.K., and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2007) The water footprint of coffee and tea consumption in the Netherlands, Ecological Economics 64(1): 109-118.
download
0.7 MB
2007
Hoekstra, A.Y. and Chapagain, A.K. (2007) Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern, Water Resources Management. 21(1): 35-48.
download
0.4 MB
2006
Chapagain, A.K., Hoekstra, A.Y., and Savenije, H.H.G. (2006) Water saving through international trade of agricultural products, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 10(3): 455-468.
download
1.8 MB
2006
Chapagain, A.K., Hoekstra, A.Y., Savenije, H.H.G. and Gautam, R. (2006) The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries, Ecological Economics. 60(1): 186-203.
download
0.9 MB
2006
Ma, J., Hoekstra, A.Y., Wang, H., Chapagain, A.K. and Wang, D. (2006) Virtual versus real water transfers within China, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 361 (1469): 835-842.
download
0.1 MB
2005
Hoekstra, A.Y. and Hung, P.Q. (2005) Globalisation of water resources: international virtual water flows in relation to crop trade, Global Environmental Change,15(1): 45-56
download
0.6 MB

 'Value of Water Research Report Series' of UNESCO-IHE

2013 Franke, N.A., Boyacioglu, H. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2013) Grey water footprint accounting: Tier 1 supporting guidelines, Value of Water Research Report Series No. 65, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, the Netherlands.
download report 60
2.7 MB
2013 Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2013) Water footprint benchmarks for crop production, Value of Water Research Report Series No. 64, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, the Netherlands.
download report 60
3.0 MB
2013 Hoekstra, A.Y. (2013) Wise freshwater allocation: Water footprint caps by river basin, benchmarks by product and fair water footprint shares by community, Value of Water Research Report Series No. 63, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, the Netherlands.
download report 60
0.6 MB
2013 Zhuo, L., Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2013) Sensitivity and uncertainty in crop water footprint accounting: A case study for the Yellow River Basin, Value of Water Research Report Series No.62.
download report 60
2.0 MB
2013 Chouchane, H., Hoekstra, A.Y., Krol, M.S. and Mekonnen, M.M. (2013) Water footprint of Tunisia from an economic perspective, Value of Water Research Report Series No. 61, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 60
4.0 MB
2012 Zhang G.P., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Tickner, D. (eds.) (2012) Proceedings of the session "Solving the Water Crisis: Common Action Toward a Sustainable Water Footprint", Planet under Pressure Conference, London, 26 March 2012, Value of Water Research Report Series No. 60, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 60
2.1 MB
2012 Ercin, A.E. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) Water footprint scenarios for 2050: A global analysis and case study for Europe, Value of Water Research Report Series No. 59, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 59
2.7 MB
2012 Hoekstra, A.Y., Booij, M.J., Hunink, J.C. and Meijer, K.S. (2012) Blue water footprint of agriculture, industry, households and water management in the Netherlands: An exploration of using the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument, Value of Water Research Report Series No. 58, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 58
6.1 MB
2012 Ercin, A.E., Mekonnen, M.M and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) The water footprint of Switzerland, Value of Water Research Report Series No. 57, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 57
1.0 MB
2012 Ercin, A.E., Mekonnen, M.M and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) The water footprint of France, Value of Water Research Report Series No. 56, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 56
2.6 MB
2011 Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) A comparative study on the water footprint of poultry, pork and beef in different countries and production systems, Value of Water Research Report Series No. 55, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 55
0.4 MB
2011 Hoekstra, A.Y., Aldaya, M.M. and Avril, B. (eds.) (2011) Proceedings of the ESF Strategic Workshop on accounting for water scarcity and pollution in the rules of international trade, Amsterdam, 25-26 November 2010, Value of Water Research Report Series No. 54, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 54
4.7 MB
2011 Hoekstra, A.Y. and Mekonnen, M.M. (2011) Global water scarcity: monthly blue water footprint compared to blue water availability for the world's major river basins, Value of Water Research Report Series No.53, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 53
7.3 MB
2011 Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) The relation between national water management and international trade: A case study for Kenya, Value of Water Research Report Series No.52, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 52
1.9 MB
2011 Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) The water footprint of electricity from hydropower, Value of Water Research Report Series No.51, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 51
0.6 MB
2011 Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption, Value of Water Research Report Series No.50, UNESCO-IHE.
Main Report
Volume 1
download report 50 volume I
2.1 MB
Appendices
Volume 2
download report 50 volume II
1.9 MB
2011 Ercin, A.E., Aldaya, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) The water footprint of soy milk and soy burger and equivalent animal products, Value of Water Research Report Series No.49, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 49
0.3 MB
2010 Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2010) The green, blue and grey water footprint of farm animals and animal products, Value of Water Research Report Series No.48, UNESCO-IHE.
Main Report
Volume 1
download report 48 volume I
0.5 MB
Appendices
Volume 2
download report 48 volume II
4.1 MB
2010 Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2010) The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products, Value of Water Research Report Series No.47, UNESCO-IHE.
Main Report
Volume 1
download report 47 volume I
1.2 MB
Appendices
Volume 2
download report 47 volume II
9.7 MB
2010 Van Oel, P.R. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2010) The green and blue water footprint of paper products: methodological considerations and quantification, Value of Water Research Report Series No.46, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 46
0.7 MB
2010 Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2010) Mitigating the water footprint of export cut flowers from the Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya, Value of Water Research Report Series No.45, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 45
1.6 MB
2010 Gerbens-Leenes, P.W. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2010) Burning water: The water footprint of biofuel-based transport, Value of Water Research Report Series No.44, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 44
0.4 MB
2010 Van Lienden, A.R., Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Van der Meer, Th.H. (2010) Biofuel scenarios in a water perspective: The global blue and green water footprint of road transport in 2030,Value of Water Research Report Series No.43, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 43
1.3 MB
2010 Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2010) A global and high-resolution assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of wheat, Value of Water Research Report Series No.42, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 42
10.2 MB
2010 Aldaya, M.M., Muñoz, G. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2010) Water footprint of cotton, wheat and rice production in Central Asia, Value of Water Research Report Series No.41, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 41
1.5 MB
2010 Chapagain, A.K. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2010) The green, blue and grey water footprint of rice from both a production and consumption perspective, Value of Water Research Report Series No.40, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 40
0.6 MB
2009 Ercin, A.E., Aldaya, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2009) A pilot in corporate water footprint accounting and impact assessment: The water footprint of a sugar-containing carbonated beverage, Value of Water Research Report Series No.39, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 39
2.3 MB
2009 Gerbens-Leenes, P.W. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2009) 'The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize', Value of Water Research Report Series No.38, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 38
0.7 MB
2009 Bulsink, F., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Booij, M.J. (2009) 'The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products', Value of Water Research Report Series No.37, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 37
1.6 MB
2009 Aldaya, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y.(2009) 'The water needed to have Italians eat pasta and pizza', Value of Water Research Report Series No.36, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 36
1.0 MB
2008 Aldaya, M.M. and Llamas, M.R. (2008) 'Water footprint analysis for the Guadiana river basin', Value of Water Research Report Series No.35, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 35
1.5 MB
2008 Van Oel, P.R., Mekonnen M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2008) ' The external water footprint of the Netherlands: Quantification and impact assessment ', Value of Water Research Report Series No.33, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 33
2.9 MB
2008 Kampman, D.A., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Krol, M.S. (2008) ' The water footprint of India ',Value of Water Research Report Series No.32, UNESCO-IHE.
Not available
2008 Verma, S., Kampman, D.A., Van der Zaag, P. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2008) 'Going against the flow: A critical analysis of virtual water trade in the context of India's National River Linking Programme',Value of Water Research Report Series No.31, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 31
0.5 MB
2008 Liu, J., Savenije, H.H.G., (2008) 'Food consumption patterns and their effect on water requirement in China',Value of Water Research Report Series No.30, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 30
0.5 MB
2008 Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Van der Meer, Th.H. (2008) 'Water footprint of bio-energy and other primary energy carriers',Value of Water Research Report Series No.29, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 29
0.5 MB
2008 Hoekstra, A.Y. (2008) 'Water neutral: reducing and offsetting the impacts of water footprints',Value of Water Research Report Series No.28, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 28
0.6 MB
2008 Gerbens-Leenes, P.W. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2008) 'Business water footprint accounting',Value of Water Research Report Series No.27, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 27
0.5 MB
2008 Verkerk, M.P., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Gerbens-Leenes, P.W. (2008) 'Global water governance: Conceptual design of global institutional arrangements',Value of Water Research Report Series No.26, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 26
0.7 MB
2008 Aldaya, M.M., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Allan, J.A. (2008) 'Strategic importance of green water in international crop trade',Value of Water Research Report Series No.25, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 25
2.0 MB
2007 Van Oel, P.R., Krol, M.S. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2007) 'A river basin as a common-pool resource: a case study for the Jaguaribe basin in Brazil',Value of Water Research Report Series No.24, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 24
0.9 MB
2007 Hoekstra, A.Y. (2007) 'Human appropriation of natural capital: Comparing ecological footprint and water footprint analysis', Value of Water Research Report Series No.23, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 23
0.7 MB
2006 Van der Zaag, P. (2006) 'Water's vulnerable value in Africa',Value of Water Research Report Series No.22, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 22
0.4 MB
2006 Hoekstra, A.Y. and Chapagain, A.K. (2006) 'The water footprints of Morocco and the Netherlands',Value of Water Research Report Series No.21, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 21
0.7 MB
2006 Hoekstra, A.Y. (2006) 'The global dimension of water governance: Nine reasons for global arrangements in order to cope with local water problems',Value of Water Research Report Series No.20, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 20
0.4 MB
2006 Van der Zaag, P. and Savenije, H.H.G. (2006) 'Water as an economic good: The value of pricing and the failure of markets',Value of Water Research Report Series No.19, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 19
0.4 MB
2005 Chapagain, A.K., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Savenije, H.H.G., Gautam, R. (2005) ‘The water footprint of cotton consumption’ ,Value of Water Research Report Series No.18, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 18
1.6 MB
2005 Chapagain, A.K., Hoekstra, A.Y. and Savenije, H.H.G. (2005) ‘Saving water through global trade’ , Value of Water Research Report Series No.17, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 17
2.6 MB
2004 Chapagain, A.K. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2004) ‘Water footprints of nations’ , Value of Water Research Report Series No.16, UNESCO-IHE.
Main Report
Volume 1
download report 16 volume I
2.5 MB
Appendices
Volume 2
download report 16 volume II
1.4 MB
2003 Chapagain, A.K. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2003) ‘The water needed to have the dutch drink tea’ ,Value of Water Research Report Series No.15, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 15
0.4 MB
2003 Chapagain, A.K. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2003) ‘The water needed to have the Dutch drink coffee’ ,Value of Water Research Report Series No.14, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 14
0.5 MB
2003 Chapagain, A.K. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2003) ‘Virtual water flows between nations in relation to trade in livestock and livestock products’ ,Value of Water Research Report Series No.13, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 13
3.1 MB
2003 Hoekstra, A.Y. (2003) (ed) ‘Virtual water trade: Proceedings of the International Expert Meeting on Virtual Water Trade’ ,Value of Water Research Report Series No.12, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 12
3.8 MB
2002 Hoekstra, A.Y. and Hung, P.Q. (2002) ‘Virtual water trade: A quantification of virtual water flows between nations in relation to international crop trade’ ,Value of Water Research Report Series No.11, UNESCO-IHE.
download report 11
0.6 MB

Corporate water footprint publications

2014
HP (2014) Water accounting manual for the calculation of HPs water footprint, Hewlett-Packard.
download
0.5 MB
2013
Franke, N. and Mathews, R. (2013). C&A's Water Footprint Strategy: Cotton Clothing Supply Chain.
download
1.6 MB
2013
Franke, N. and Mathews, R. (2013). Grey Water Footprint Indicator of Water Pollution in the Production of Organic vs. Conventional Cotton in India.
download
1.5 MB
2013
Unger, K., Zhang, G. and Mathews, R. (2013). Water Footprint Assessment Results and Learning: Tata Chemicals, Tata Motors, Tata Power, Tata Steel, Tata Quality Management Services, International Finance Corporation, and Water Footprint Network.
download
2.7 MB
2011
Sikirica, N. (2011) Water footprint assessment bananas and pineapples, Dole Food Company, Soil & More International, Driebergen, the Netherlands.
download
3.7 MB
2011
BIER (2011) A practical perspective on water accounting in the beverage sector, Beverage Industry Environmental Roundtable.
download
1.5 MB
2011
Coca-Cola Europe (2011) Water footprint sustainability assessment: Towards sustainable sugar sourcing in Europe, Brussels, Belgium.
download
3.5 MB
2011
UPM-Kymmene (2011) From forest to paper, the story of our water footprint, Helsinki, Finland. [video]
download
2.2 MB
2010
IFC, LimnoTech, Jain Irrigation Systems and TNC (2010) Water footprint assessments − Dehydrated onion products, Micro-irrigation systems − Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd. , International Finance Corporation, Washington, D.C., USA.
download
2.8 MB
2010
TCCC and TNC (2010) Product water footprint assessments: Practical application in corporate water stewardship, The Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, USA / The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, USA.
download
4.4 MB
2010
SABMiller, GTZ and WWF (2010) Water futures: Working together for a secure water future, SABMiller, Woking, UK / WWF-UK, Goldalming, UK. [video]
download
2.8 MB
2010
Chapagain, A.K. and Orr, S. (2010) Water Footprint of Nestlé's 'Bitesize Shredded Wheat'. A pilot study to account and analyse the water footprints of Bitesize Shredded Wheat in the context of water availability along its supply chain
download
0.7 MB
2009
SABMiller and WWF-UK (2009) Water footprinting: Identifying & addressing water risks in the value chain, SABMiller, Woking, UK / WWF-UK, Goldalming, UK
download
2.8 MB

Other publications

2014
WWF (2014) Water footprint of Italy, WWF Italy, Rome, Italy.
download
5.0 MB
2014
Selander, L. (ed.) (2014) Making water your business: Company perspectives from the Baltic Sea Region, Baltic Development Forum, Copenhagen, Denmark.
download
5.0 MB
2014
UNEP (2014) Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) Targets & Indicators, United Nations Environment Programme, Paris, France.
download
1.2 MB
2013
ADB (2013) Thinking about water differently: Managing the water-food-energy nexus, Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines.
download
0.7 MB
2013
FAO (2013) Food wastage footprint: Impacts on natural resources, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.
download
3.0 MB
2013
Hoekstra (2013) Reducing the water footprint in India, SustaiNuance, 2(3): 26-27.
download
7.0 MB
2013
Dallemand, J.F. and Gerbens-Leenes, P.W. (eds.) (2013) Bioenergy and water, Joint Research Centre, European Union, Ispra, Italy.
download
9.0 MB
2013
Antonelli M., and Greco F. (eds.) (2013) L'acqua che mangiamo: Cos'è l'acqua virtuale e come la consumiamo, Edizioni Ambiente, Milan, Italy.
2012
Flachmann, C., Mayer, H., & Manzel, K. (2012). Water footprint of food products in Germany: Federal Statistical Office of Germany, Wiesbaden. Germany.
download
0.7 MB
2012
AgroDer (2012) The Water Footprint of Mexico in the context of North America. WWF Mexico and AgroDer. México DF.
download
6.6 MB
2012
Fulton, J., Cooley, H. and Gleick, P.H. (2012) California's Water Footprint, Pacific Institute, Oakland, CA, USA.
download
2.5 MB
2012
Witmer, M.C.H. and Cleij, P. (2012) Water footprint: Useful for sustainability policies? PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Hague, the Netherlands.
download
1.0 MB
2012
Ercin, A.E. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) Carbon and water footprints: Concepts, methodologies and policy responses, United Nations World Water Assesment Programme, Side Publications Series No.4, UNESCO, Paris.
download
0.8 MB
2012
Hastings, E. and Pegram, G. (2012) Literature review for the applicability of water footprints in South Africa, WRC Report No. 2099/P/11, Water Research Commission, Gezina, South Africa.
download
6.6 MB
2012
WWF-Suomi (2012) Suomen vesijalanjälki: Globaali kuva suomalaisten vedenkulutuksesta (Finland's water footprint: The global picture of water consumption in Finland), WWF-Suomi, Helsinki, Finland.
download
1.9 MB
2012
McGlade, J., Werner, B., Young, M., Matlock, M., Jefferies, D., Sonnemann, G., Aldaya, M., Pfister, S., Berger, M., Farell, C., Hyde, K., Wackernagel, M., Hoekstra, A., Mathews, R., Liu, J., Ercin, E., Weber, J.L., Alfieri, A., Martinez-Lagunes, R., Edens, B., Schulte, P., von Wire´n-Lehr, S. and Gee, D. (2012) Measuring water use in a green economy, United Nations Environment Programme, Paris, France.
download
4.9 MB
2012
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) Water footprint accounting, In: Godfrey, J.M. and Chalmers, K. (eds.) Water accounting: International approaches to policy and decision-making, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, pp. 58-75.
download
2.5 MB
2012
WWF-Switzerland (2012) The Swiss water footprint report: A global picture of Swiss water dependence, WWF Switzerland, Zurich, Switzerland.
download
4.5 MB
2012
WWF-France (2012) L'empreinte eau de la France, WWF France, Paris, France.
download
2.1 MB
2012
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2012) Water, In: Ritzer, G., The Wiley-Blackwell encyclopedia of globalization, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, pp. 2202-2210.
download
0.1 MB
2011
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) How sustainable is Europe's water footprint? Water and Wastewater International, 26(2): 24-26.
download
0.6 MB
2011
UNEP (2011) Water footprint and corporate water accounting for resource efficiency, United Nations Environment Programme, Paris.
download
4.4 MB
2011
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) Understanding the water footprint of factory farming, Farm Animal Voice, 180: 14-15.
download
1.2 MB
2011
Chapagain, A. and James, K. (2011) The water and carbon footprint of household food and drink waste in the UK, Waste & Resources Action Programme (WRAP), Banbury, Oxon, UK & WWF, Godalming, Surrey, UK.
download
3.2 MB
2011
Vincent, D., De Caritat, A.K., Stijn Bruers, S., Chapagain, A., Weiler, P. and Laurent, A. (2011) Belgium and its water footprint, WWF-Belgium, Brussels.
download
1.6 MB
2010
Sonnenberg, A., Chapagain, A., Geiger, M., August, D. and Wagner, W. (2010). Der Wasser-Fußabdruck der Schweiz: Woher stammt das Wasser, das in unseren Landwirtschaftsprodukten steckt? WWF Schweiz, Zürich.
download
2.9 MB
2010
Liu, J. and Orr, S. (2010) Water footprint overview in the governmental, public policy, and corporate contexts, In: Lundqvist, J. (ed.) On the water front: Selections from the 2009 World Water Week in Stockholm, Stockholm International Water Institute, Stockholm, pp. 73-79.
download
0.6 MB
2010
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2010) The water footprint of animal products, In: D'Silva, J. and Webster, J. (eds.) The meat crisis: Developing more sustainable production and consumption, Earthscan, London, UK, pp. 22-33.
download
3.3 MB
2010
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2010) The water footprint: water in the supply chain, The Environmentalist 93: 12-13.
download
1.0 MB
2010
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2010) The relation between international trade and freshwater scarcity, Working Paper ERSD-2010-05, January 2010, World Trade Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
download
0.2 MB
2010
Aldaya, M.M., Garrido, A., Llamas, M.R., Varelo-Ortega, C., Novo, P., and Casado, R.R. (2010) Water footprint and virtual water trade in Spain, In: A. Garrido and M.R. Llamas (eds.), Water policy in Spain, CRC Press, Leiden, The Netherlands, pp. 49-59.
download
0.4 MB
2009
Sonnenberg, A., Chapagain, A., Geiger, M. and August, D. (2009). Der Wasser-Fußabdruck Deutschlands: Woher stammt das Wasser, das in unseren Lebensmitteln steckt? WWF Deutschland, Frankfurt.
download
2.4 MB
2009
Hoekstra, A.Y., Chapagain, A.K., Aldaya, M.M. and Mekonnen, M.M. (2009) Water footprint manual: State of the art 2009, Water Footprint Network, Enschede, the Netherlands.
download
1.8 MB
2008
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2008) The relation between international trade and water resources management,
In: K.P. Gallagher (ed.) Handbook on trade and the environment, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK, pp. 116-125.
download
2.4 MB
2008
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2008) Measuring your water footprint: What's next in water strategy, Leading Perspectives, Summer 2008, pp. 12-13, 19.
download
0.5 MB
2008
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2008) Water scarcity and international trade: The need to extend the scope of water resources management, In: C. Bastian et al., Wasser − Konfliktstoff des 21. Jahrhunderts, Universitätsverlag Winter, Heidelberg, pp. 121-141.
download
9.7 MB
2008
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2008) The water footprint of food, In: F örare, J. (ed.) Water for food, The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (Formas), Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 49-60.
download
0.3 MB
2008
Chapagain, A. K. and S. Orr (2008) UK Water Footprint: The impact of the UK's food and fibre consumption on global water resources, Volume 1, WWF-UK, Godalming, UK.
Main Report
Volume 1
download
7.9 MB
Appendices
Volume 2
download Appendices Volume 2
1.5 MB
2007
Zygmunt, J. (2007) 'Hidden waters Waterwise', London.
download
2.0 MB
2006
UNESCO (2006) Water, a shared responsibility: The United Nations world water development report 2, Chapter 11 Sharing water', UNESCO Publishing, Paris / Berghahn Books, Oxford.
download
0.7 MB
2005
SIWI, IFPRI, IUCN, and IWMI (2005) 'Let it reign: The new water paradigm for global food security', Working Report to CSD-13, Stockholm International Water Institute, Stockholm.
download
3.0 MB
2003
Hoekstra, A.Y. (2003) 'Virtual water trade between nations: A global mechanism affecting regional water systems. IGBP Global Change News Letter, No. 54, pp. 2-4.
download
0.6 MB
2003
Stockholm Water Front, No.2, June 2003: Virtual water: An instrument in relieving the pressure on the World's water resources?
download
0.4 MB

 




home   |   contact  |   Find us on Facebook  |   WaterFootPrint at LinkedIn |   Follow us trough Twitter  |   |     print this page  |
© 2014 Water Footprint Network.
All rights reserved.